LABS & RESEARCH

















































SYSTEM DESIGN LABORATORY:


The department has a long experience in Microprocessor/ PC based system design. Several Intelligent instruments based on Microcontrollers/FPGAs have been developed. Identifying specific applications, interfacing and software designs are the major activities carried out under this laboratory. The research work has focused on two major aspects: design and development of hardware for implementing various algorithms to realize intelligent systems, as well as development of software for the same. The research covers the analysis of image and odor data using techniques from signal processing, pattern recognition and artificial neural networks. It's expertise and activities span development of software for machine vision applications, MRI image segmentation and XRAY NDT image analysis. FPGA based automatic target recognition and tracking system has also been realized successfully..



A PC based Enose development system has been developed and used to design aportable embedded electronic.The system has been successfully used for the identification of various gases, analyzing mixtures, detection of odors like perfumes, essences, ethers and alcohols. A Mobile platform for odor source localization named Mokhtar, has been designed and development of algorithms for simultaneous localization and mapping is being carried out. Applications of Neural networks in Image segmentation, gesture recognition, Palm biometry and facial expression analysis is being investigated. A gesture recognition system for Indoor robot navigation has been developed. Work on Palm biometry based on various feature extraction and pattern recognition algorithm is being carried out. Study of convolutional neural networks and their application for facial expression analysis is being explored. Presently use of MLP for detecting the facial feature points like the eyes, nose, lips and chin is being carried out. A PC based Electrical Impedance tomography system has been designed and its performance is being tested. Work on using the system for nondestructive testing is also being investigated. Also work on improving the quality of service in Wireless sensor Networks, exploring the use of IOT for dairy management is underway. The Lunar Electromagnetic And Plasma Sensors (LEAPS) is a proposed space payload aimed at the study of space plasma interactions around the Moon and near-space environment in the range of 300 KHz¿16 MHz. With this objective design of Electrical and magnetic loop antennas, RF front end and FPGA data acquisition interface, acquiring the data, logging the data in memory have been done. Further development of the Space payload is being carried out in Collaboration with PRL, and SAC Ahmedabad.

Electronic Nose:

A PC based odor sensing system (PCBOSS) has been designed. A software package ODAP has been developed for acquisition and analysis of odors. The system has been successfully used for the identification of various gases, analyzing mixtures, detection of odors like perfumes, essences, ethers and alcohols. An analog circuit to implement the electronic nose has also been developed.



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CYBER LAB FOR ELECTRONICS:


Development of a laboratory in which students could carry out experiments over the web has been taken up as a UGC project. Presently basic experiments related to device characterization and digital electronics are being set up. With the advent of Internet and World Wide Web with horde of information the teaching methods need to be upgraded. The class room teaching needs to be supported with hands on laboratory exercises even in the commercial training systems. Many of the learning courses launched to date provide a good alternative/ complaint to classroom teaching with the support of web enabled multimedia lessons. However especially for courses like electronics just the multimedia presentation is not enough and feels of actually working on a real system observing the positive and negative results of various actions is must. In view of such a need for hands on, many a times online courses need to be added with a laboratory component.

In the past, students had to be in the laboratory to gain practical experience; with effective remote laboratories, students can be anywhere. Practical experience is a very important part of engineering education, but it is resource intensive. Designing and conducting experiments can take time, money and energy. Sharing experiments locally and remotely allows unique laboratory experiment to be utilized more fully, brings down the experiment cost per student, and more time available to students. Our goal with the remote laboratory paradigm is to make the equipment that we already have available to more students without taking away the experience of being physically present in the laboratory. Internet provides the communication infrastructure between students and the experiments.

The objectives of the project could be briefly stated as

  1. Explore the range of WWW technology available for preparing the course material.
  2. Experiment with the use of features offered by Netscape, CGI scripts and Java in imparting knowledge.
  3. Prepare course material for the courses.
  4. Use the material for various student groups and update it based on student's feedback.

The achievements during the course of past one year could be stated as Review of work on online courses and remote experimentation using web technology.


Automatic Trajectory Plotting System (ATPS):

A system for digitizing and analyzing a sequence of images and obtain the trajectory of a particular object has been developed. The software is menu driven and user interactive. The ATPS could be used for a number of applications. It has been used for tracking a moving vehicle and an insect.


FPGA based system design:

Work on implementation of Algorithms and systems in Field programmable gate arrays is being carried out. A digital frequency meter, printer interface, template search routine and image registration has been realized.


Tactile Sensing System:

A PC Based tactile sensing system has been designed. A menu driven software package providing various options for acquisition and analysis of data has been designed. The system has been used for identification of geometric objects.



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SENSORS, MATERIALS and MEMS LABORATORIES:


The department possesses good research level facilities for fabrication of discrete semiconductor devices. Oxidation and Diffusion furnaces, vacuum evaporation and magnetron sputtering systems for metallization, ebeam evaporation system, photolithography setup, ebeam lithography system are the important facilities available in the department in fabrication laboratory ( FAB Lab ). The FAB Lab has a fully equipped yellow room for optical lithography purpose. A SEM and plasma processing set up are also available for material characterization/processing . Development of Silicon based and thin/thick film microsensors is another activity carried out in the laboratory. A system has been made by setting up for micromachining of silicon and it has shown encouraging results in the attempt to fabricate micropressure sensors. This laboratory is engaged in carrying out research on synthesis and characterization of Plasma Polymerized Electron Beam Resist.


Magnetron sputtering system:

Magnetron sputtering system is used for depositing piezoelectric thin films like PZT. Also other oxides and nitrides film can be deposited using specific material targets . It is also used for deposition of gold thin films for device applications.


Physical vapor deposition:

Physical vapor deposition system is employed for mainly metallization applications. Metals used for contacts like Gold, Aluminum with a thickness of few 100s of nm can be deposited. Also other insulating materials like AlF3 and BaF2 and metal oxide materials can be deposited.


Plasma Asher:

Plasma asher is available with facility of having plasma ashing in presence of oxygen/ inert gas plasma. The instrument is used for passivation of polymer films as well as surface modification of thin films using gas ion bombardment principle.



Magnetron sputtering, Physical vapor deposition and optical lithography room are the important facilities available in the fabrication laboratory. For piezoelectric materials Pellet mill and piezometer system for piezomaterials characterization is also available. The FAB Lab has a fully equipped yellow room along with clean benches and DI water facility for optical lithography purpose. The laboratory has a main focus on development of thin film based devices for various applications like sensors and piezoelectric transducers and masking materials. Development of Silicon based thin/thick film microsensors is carried out in the laboratory. An in-house EBL system (lc EBLS1), around a Scanning Electron Microscope, has been developed successfully. This system can be used to evaluate the resist, to make masks and to inspect the mask or pattern delineated in the resist. In the early stages polymers like PMMA, PTFE, HEMA as masking materials for silicon micromachining have been investigated. Optimization of silicon nitride (Si3N4) and indium nitride (InN) for antireflection coating has been carried out. A Si based Hall sensor is developed indigenously for use in Automobile industries for RPM measurements of the wheels. Plasma polymerized PMMA was characterized and used for application in humidity sensing material. An indigenous system is developed for detection of radial pulse using piezoelectric transducers. A complete set up along with integrated electronics and LAB-VIEW based front end design was developed and tested. A database is generated to classify pulse data according to different characteristics indicated by ayurvedic experts and this will be useful to study overall health of a person. MEMS based devices were designed using Coventorware software and further studied for application in RF MEMS and acceleration sensors. Conducting polymers and composites based gas sensors were fabricated and successfully implemented for detecting NH3, Cl2 and H2S, NO. Recently the work is going on deposition and characterization of polymer based thin films for application in development of SAW based sensors. Similarly development of electrochemical sensor for NO2 monitoring along with signal conditioning is underway. A noise source based on inert gas plasma tube is developed.



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COMMUNICATION AND RF DESIGN LAB:


Department has state of the art RF equipment for RF circuit design with which different types of Antenna, Filters, RF circuits, LNA¿s, Mixers etc. have been developed for the frequencies ranging from KHz to GHz. Different simulation software¿s like AWR (Applied Wave Research), and 4NEC2 are available. Vector Network Analyzer (Upto 3 GHz), Spectrum Analyzer (Upto 6GHz), RF function Generator (Upto 3 GHz), Waveform generator, MSO(mixed Domain Oscilloscope), DSO(Digital Signal Oscilloscope) are also present. The lab has different types of antennas simulated, designed, fabricated by students indigenously using the various facilities in the lab.
Projects going on in RF lab: Design, Simulation and Fabrication of Phased array antenna in LTCC (Low temperature co-fired Ceramic). Pranoti S. Bansode.


Converting energy derivable from low energy sources into electrical power for autonomous sensors applications. : Amit Morarka.

Space Electromagnetic and Plasma Sensor (SEAPS):- Mr. Akash Dimber.

Study of Conformal Antenna: Mr. Swapnil Narke. Vector network analyzer (VNA) (Agilent E5062A)

A network analyzer is an instrument that measures the network parameters of electrical networks. Today, network analyzers commonly measure s¿parameters because reflection and transmission of electrical networks are easy to measure at high frequencies, but there are other network parameter sets such as y-parameters, z-parameters, and h-parameters. Network analyzers are often used to characterize two-port networks such as amplifiers and filters, but they can be used on networks with an arbitrary number of ports. Signal generator (Agilent N9310A)

RF Signal generator is used to generate the RF signal. The frequency range of Signal generator is 9 KHz to 3 GHz. It has tow port output one is LF (Low frequency output) and RF (Radio frequency output).It has provide Maximum 4W power at the output. Spectrum analyzer (Agilent CSA Spectrum Analyzer)

Antennas : In RF lab students have designed,Simulated and fabricated different types of planer and wire antennas. Photgraph shows some antennas like patch antennas,array antennas,phase array antenna,horn antenna,Helix antenna,Smart antenna,cantenna,Cross- dipole,Log priodic antennas designed.


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OPTOELECTRONIC SENSORS AND SYSTEMS LABORATORY:



The research activities carried out in the Optoelectronic Sensors and Systems Laboratory include development of Integrated Optical components, MSM photodetectors, Universal Signal Conditioning system and fiber optic sensors for mechanical and chemical applications. Transmissive ESLMs using twisted pneumatic liquid crystal are designed and fabricated consisting of a 32 x 32 matrix pixel for optoelectronic logic processing. Presently, the activities are related to optical waveguides fabricated in glass using the ionexchange technique. Stress is laid on the sensing applications of integrated optic devices. Various Embedded Optical Fiber Sensor Modules have been designed likeoptical reflectance based micro displacement sensor probe , which is also used for strain and load measurement, Multi wavelength fiber optic based sensor for chemical analysis like pH, concentration and RI measurements of liquid and fluids, Fiber optic U shaped and Planer Optical Waveguide based online RI monitoring and Phsensor for liquids and fluids in Sugar Industries, Food Processing and Chemical Industries to analyze the concentration of ingredients, turbidity and viscosity etc, Tri-Stimulus Colorimetry based fiber optic probe for color sensing , MSM Photodetector.



These sensors are integrated with embedded electronics to realize intelligent standalone systems for applications in Sugar, Chemical, Food Processing, Paper and Textile Industries. The group has also developed a Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) System, for semiconductor wafer processing.
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VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION LABORATORY:


A Virtual Instrumentation lab has been set up in collaboration with National Instruments, a Texas based company. Virtual Instruments for various applications are being developed.

The field of instrumentation has been revolutionized with the advent of computer age. Today the front panel as well as hardware of the instrument is being substituted with software, making the instrument cheaper, more versatile and virtual. The concept of virtual instrumentation has not only influenced the industry but is also affecting traditional academic research and teaching. It gives the ability to transform a personal computer into a number of powerful Virtual Instruments. The field of VI is breaking down the barriers developing and maintaining instruments that challenge the world of test, measurement and industrial automation.

Today globally competitive economy requires scientists, engineers and technicians who are competent with products used in the industry. The Department of Electronic Science has acquired expertise in the field of Microprocessor/PC based Instrument over the past 20 years. The research activity is focused on Intelligent Instrumentation along with DSP, Image processing, Machine Vision, Neural Network and Fuzzy Systems. Considering the expertise available in the Department, National Instruments, a Texas based company has come forward to collaborate and setup a Virtual Instrumentation laboratory on the Pune University Campus.

Hundreds of universities, technical schools abroad have made transition to virtual instrumentation. The emergence of computers as a multipurpose engineering and scientific tool can make researchers, teachers more productive and change the way students learn. The computers can be transformed into powerful, multipurpose laboratory tools that can replace expensive, outdated equipment.

The department has been actively pursuing the research in basic and applied sciences along with various developmental projects. This part of the research has been an integrated part with a view to understand and contribute to the future technology to come. Following is a brief summery of the research done. Dr. Shaligram has participated in the MOSTEC programme initiated at all India level to develop a software package for MOS processing. This was an attempt to analyze various processes as surface chemical processes and connecting the outcome to the experimental macroscopic parameters. The software was published in 1990.




Modeling And Simulation:

The faculty of the department is also involved in Modeling and Simulation activities. Computer simulations are related to nonequilibrium phenomena, semiconductor devices and processes. The Department was a part of the MOSTEP programme initiated at all India level to develop a software package for MOS processing. This was an attempt to analyze various processes as surface chemical processes and connecting the outcome to the experimental macroscopic parameters. The department has participated in a National Program of Technology Simulator Development sponsored by DOE. The program involved Monte Carlo calculations of 2D states of triangular potential well for silicon at the oxide interface considering various scattering processes. In association with Univ. South. Cal. USA a code for atomistic growth of GaAs and AlGaAs using known diffusion coefficient and relevant properties of corresponding elements in the vapor form has been developed. This work has successfully explained various observations on III/V compound growth, including RHEED oscillations, temperature dependence of layer by layer growth, roughening of interfaces between GaAs and AlGaAs, etc. In another collaboration with University of Maryland USA, simulations using various models are carried out to study the statistical physics of conservative as well as non conservative growths.Collaborative work with U. Mich. Ann Arbor, USA is being carried out to understand the catalytic behavior of CO on Pt surfaces. The main interest was to understand the oscillatory behavior of surface reactionusingnon linear dynamics. Further,the problem of brittle cracks in SiO2 has beeninvestigated through simulation studies. The well known fact that micro cracks are developed well before the critical stress is applied was explained using the effect of viscosity and thermal noise. Recently work is being carried out on establishing electronic structures of quantum dots of CdSe and ZnSe along with Physics Dept. of the Pune University. This study is intended to explain some of the experimental observations in spectroscopy related to quantum dots and also the diffusion behavior of nano particles.

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