Linear algebra, bases, operators, matrices, Pauli matrices, Tensor products, commutator and anti commutator, state space, quantum measurements, Distinguishing quantum states, projective measurements, POVM measurements, density operator, Schmitt decomposition EPR and the Bell inequality.
UV-VIS spectroscopy: Radiation sources, wavelength selection, Cells and sampling devices, Detectors, readout modules, data analysis.
IR spectrometry: Correlation of Infrared spectra with Molecular structure, Instrumentation, sample handling, Quantitative Analysis.
X-ray methods: Production of X-rays and X-ray spectra, Instrumentation, Direct X-ray methods, X-ray absorption, fluorescence and diffraction methods, Energy dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) Auger Emission Spectroscopy, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), interpretation of spectra. Mass Spectrometry: Sample flow in mass spectrometer, inlet sample system, ionization methods, mass analysers, ion collection systems, data handling, vacuum system, correlation of mass spectra with molecular structure, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).
Ellipsometry: optical parameter measurements (n and k), thickness measurements.
Microscopic Techniques: optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron microscope (TEM ), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), Other measuring techniques: Thickness measurement – gravimetric method, fitzeau fringe method, tally step method etc, Adhesion – contact angle, tape, scratch, strain / stress methods.
Measurement of electrical parameters of semiconductor materials, resistivity, mobility, carrier concentration, carrier type.
Block diagram, working principle and procedure of operation of Digital Storage Oscilloscopes, mixed signal oscilloscopes, Arbitrary waveform generators, RF generators, RF power meter, DC electronic load.
Electrometer, EMI/EMC Tester, Spectrum analyzers, Impedance analyzer, Vector signal analyzer, Network analyzers, Logic analyzer, Automatic test equipment - PCB test and Inspection system, Semiconductor parameter analyzer.
Iterative algorithms, solving equations and finding roots, practical considerations of convergence rate and accuracy.
Curve fitting: Regression, Least square, Polynomial,Lagrangian interpolation, Newtons divided difference, Splines Quadratic, Cubic Splines.
Numerical methods for solution of differential, partial differential and integral equations, Euler's method, Runge-Kutta method, Numerical integration, differentiation, Simpson's 1/3 rule, Gauss quadrature formula, Euler Maclaurine formula.
Finite difference and finite element methods, applications in solution of Poisson's equation, driftdiffusion transport process, propagation of E.M. waves etc.
Documentation types, methods, layouts, audience oriented preparation, presentation and preservation.
Instrument-human interface, user centered design, ergonomics, utility, principles of appropriate operation, Case studies.
Packaging and enclosures-design for manufacturing, assembly and disassembly, Wiring, temperature, vibration and shock, rugged systems. Grounding and shielding design, safety and noise.
Circuit design, Circuit lay-out, power supplies, power distribution, Cooling – heat transfer, thermal management, cooling choices-heat sinks, heat pipes and thermal pillows, fans and forced air cooling, liquid cooling, evaporation and refrigeration, Tradeoffs in design.
Integration, production and logistics.
Mathematical models of systems, state variable models, Transfer function, Block diagrams and signal flow-graphs, analysis of state variable models of open and closed loop systems, Mathematical modeling of Physical systems, equations of electric networks, modeling mechanical system elements.
Stability of linear control systems. Methods of determining stability- Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion, root locus and frequency response methods of control system analysis, Bode and Nyquist plots.
Short dipole antennas, antenna arrays, horn and helical antenna, field pattern and radiation resistance in various cases. Antenna types and parameters for isotropic, dipole, broadside and end fire arrays, Yagi-Uda, log periodic and rhombic antenna, microwave antennas, horn, microstripline, slot antennas, parabolic reflector, Antenna design programs for microstrip.
Design of digital filters, practical considerations, IIR and FIR filters. Digital Fourier transforms and FFT techniques. Applications to spectrum analyzer, speech processing, audio CD Player, AM detector, echo cancellor.
Mechanical, thermal, optical, electrical, magnetic, chemical sensors, displacement, strain, vibration, pressure, flow, force and torque, temperature transducers.
Actuators, electromechanical, electrothermal, electrooptical and electrochemical actuators, working principles, specifications and application examples, relays, motors, heaters.
Electronic components, specifications of commercially available components, modern package like SMDs, application circuits of sensors with electronic components, Signal conditioning circuits.
Optical fiber manufacturing processes. Optical fiber testing and parameter (cut off wavelength, loss per unit length, numerical aperture, bending loss, connector/splice loss) measurement. Power meter, OTDR- principle and uses. Spectrum analyzer.
Optical Amplifiers, semiconductor optical amplifiers, EDFA, Raman Amplifier. WDM and DWDM systems.
Fiber communication systems. System design considerations for point to point link. System architecture, optical transmitters and receivers, elctro optic modulators, Non-linear effects and system performance, Dispersion management, Soliton propagation.
Analog and digital modulation, bit error rate, eye diagram. Optical add-drop multiplexers. Applications of Optical fiber communication systems.
Construction, operating principles, ratings and operating parameters of following devices – SCR, Thyristors types :- phase control, inverter grade, asymmetrical (ASCR) reverse conducting, (RCT), Gate assistated Turn off (GATT), Bidirectional diode (DIAC), TRIAC, SUS, SBC, SCS, LASCR, power transistors, power MOSFETS, IGBT’s, SITS, GTO, FCT, SITH, MCT, PIC’s. ate triggering circuits, series and parallel operations.
Phase angle control, single phase – half wave control, full wave control, Half controlled bridge, voltage doubler, Three phase fully controlled, bridge, three phase half control bridge, selection of converter circuits, firing circuits, triggering circuits.
Control of dc to dc converter, step down (Buck) converter, step-up (Boost) converter, Buck-Boost converter, Cuk-dc-dc converter fill bridge dc to dc converter. Cycloconverters Dual converters, microprocessor based firing schemes for dual converter.
Classification, basic concepts, load resonant converter, zero voltage and /or zero current switching.
Basic concepts, classification, series inverter, self commutated inverters, parallel inverters, single-phase bridge voltage source invecter, three phase bridge, voltage control of single phase and three phase inverters, current source inverters, PWM inverters.
Single phase, three phase AC regulators.
Switching dc power supplies – linear power supplies, switching power supplies, dc-dc converter with electrical isolation, control of switch mode P/S, P/S protection, designing concepts.
Power Line Disturbances, Power conditioners and uninterruptible power supplies.
Conditions for quantum computation, preparation of initial states and measurement results, Harmonic oscillator quantum computer, optical photon quantum computer, optical cavity electrodynamics, Ion traps, nuclear magnetic resonance.
Amplitude modulation- DSSBC, DSBTC, SSB, VSB, AM demodulators, Coherent and incoherent demodulation, IC modulators and demodulators. Frequency modulation and demodulation, Broadband FM and FM stereo, Phase modulation and demodulation, Narrowband and broadband PM.
Concepts of sound recording and reproduction, PA Systems, mixers, distribution amplifiers, filters, equalizers, mono and stereo systems, Superheterodyne radio receiver.
Video signal transmission, and reception, camera and picture tube, scanning, synchronization and composite video signal, television receiver, monochrome and colour, NTSC, PAL and SECAM systems, CCTV, HDTV, CATV and DTH, concepts of Home Theatre.
Principles of Telemetry.
I/O devices for process control and instrumentation, transducers, signal conditioning circuits, instrumentation amplifier, programmable gain amplifier, S/H, analog multiplexers, data acquisition systems, timers and counters
RF ID, Smart cards, PDA’s, Zip drives, Consumer applications, Automotive control.
Clean room techniques: Clean rooms, class of clean rooms, filter, air curtains, air showers, particle counters, De-ionized water, DI plant, purity of gases and materials, Quartzware, furnaces, gas bubblers and other apparatus in fab labs, components of fab systems including valves, flowmeters, gas links, vacuum links, sealing, gas leakage detection systems, laboratory hazards and their prevention.
Fabrication Equipment: Diffusion and oxidation furnaces, Mask aligners, Mask preparation techniques.
Co-ordinato graph, e-beam lithography machine, step and repeat camera, Ion implanters, Vacuum systems, sputtering techniques – DC, RF, magnetron, Gas handling equipment, Bonders – thermal, thermosonic, ultrasonic, Cleaning and etching baths.
Assembly and packaging: Package types, package fabrication techniques:ceramic package glass sealing, plastic moulding, Hermetic sealing, metal can package, package design consideration Reliability issues
Mobile communication systems, cellular concepts, role of base station and mobile switching centers, Hand-off considerations, frequency reuse, roaming, SMS, GSM, GPRS, CDMA and EDGE, Speech coding techniques, Vocoders.
Satellite communication principles and GPS.
Resource sharing, Priority inheritance and priority ceiling protocols, stack resource protocol. systems A quick look at some real systems
Basic operating-system functions needed for real-time computing, Overview of operating Systems.
A brief survey of commercial real-time and non-real-time operating systems: Embedded OS, Real Time OS, Hand held OS.
Porting RTOS on a Microcontroller based development system board, Programming in Linux, Shell programming, System Programming.
Programming in RT Linux.
Electronic components, specifications of commercially available components, modern package like SMDs.
MEMS Technology, What are MEMS, Why silicon, micromachining processes, Different structures in MEMS e.g. Cantilever, grooves, diaphragms, comb lines etc, design considerations, sensors such as accelerometer, pressure, gears, flowmeters etc.
Data path concepts, Design of Data Paths and control units, Processor architecture, Timing and Control unit designs, CISC and RISC architectures, ALU design, Pipelined processors, pipelined instruction execution, Scalable processors.
Architectural concepts of Intel 8086 family including 80286, 386,486, Pentium, Memory and IO systems.
mechatronic approach, control, design process, Load conditions, flexibility, man machine interface Sensors and instrumentation systems, embedded systems, Drives and actuator, Control Devices, Linear systems, Rotational Drives, Motion Converters.
Motion control devices and circuits: pilot devices, control circuits and load circuits, fuses and circuit breakers, enclosures, conductors, lockout, tag out safety.
Robots and other motor control systems: Types of robot control, Types of Robot programs.
CNC MACHINES, Parts of a Robot, robot actuators, IO modules.
Case studies: Autofocus cameras, Floppy/CD ROM drives, Industrial Robots.
Overview of Transformers : Transformer rated for 230 Volts and 208 volts primary, transformer voltage, current, and turns ratios, step-up and step-down transformers, VA ratings for transformers, three-phase transformers, the WYE- connected three-phase transformer, the DELTA- and WYEconnected Three-Phase transformer, DELTA-and WYE-Connected transformers with a neutral terminal.
Motor-Driven Valves : Relays, contractors, and motor starters, variable-frequency drives, DC drives, stepper motors, linear stepper motors, servomotors.
DC Motor Operation : Types of DC motors, AC motors, characteristics of three-phase voltage, Operation of an AC induction motor, connecting motors for Torque speed and horsepower condition, reversing the rotation of a three-phase induction motor, three-phase synchronous motors, capacitor start, induction run motors, capacitor start, capacitor run motors, DC generators.
Application : Aluminum Rolling Mill : Application : Microprocessor-controlled plastic resin dryer and related motor control devices and circuits.
Study architecture, assembly language and specific applications of TI, AD and Motorola DSP processors.
Applications for filtering, modulation, demodulation, Image enhancement and compression, motion control and positioning, Radar, Sonar, Noise reduction and Echo cancellation, Speech recognition and interference rejection.
Fault Modeling and Simulation, Functional testing, Design for testability, Scan based designs, Boundary scan standards (JTAG), Signature analysis, Built in Self test , Built in logic block observer.
Packet switching networks, TCP/IP and Internetworking, network architectures and protocols, network security, ATM Networks, ISDN, BISDN, VoIP, VoDSL, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi WLAN, WAP and Mobile computing.