Infinite array of potential wells,Kronig-Penny model, Barrier penetration, applications to tunnel diode, Josephson effect, Perturbation theory and its applications, Scattering.
Binomial and related distributions, Phase space, Statistical ensembles, applications of classical statistical mechanics, Quantum statistics, Brownian motion, Random walk problem.
Heat transport equation, Kinetic derivation of viscosity, Thermal conductivity etc., Boltzmann Equation with applications, Chemical potential, partition function and its applications.
Electronic structure and related properties, Bloch theorem phonons, Nearly Free electron theory, introduction to tight binding and various band structures, Band structure calculation methods, thermal conductivity due to electrons and phonons, perturbation theory
Semiconductors: Direct and indirect band gap methods to determine the forbidden gap electronic and hole transport in semiconductors, electrical parameters, carrier concentration, mobility, temperature dependence, experimental methods to study the electrical parameters, thermo electric effect. Hall effect, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, electrons and phonons in semiconductors
Dielectric properties, electronic polarisability, Clausius Mossotti relation, dielectric constant static and frequency dependence, e.m. waves in solid, interface, Kramer-Kronig relation, damped oscillation.
Optical properties of Si and GaAs, Photoluminiscence and Laser Raman Scattering in Crystalline and amorphous materials, piezoelectric properties, polymers and their properties.
Magnetic and Electrooptical properties. Magnetism – various contributions to para and dia magnetism, Fero and Ferri magnetism and ferrites, Magnons and dispersion relation, antiferromagnetism, domains and domain walls, coercive force, hysterisis, methods for parameters measurements.
Defects in crystals and their effects on mechanical, electrical and optical properties. Diffusion in materials.
Design of transistor amplifiers, two port representation and applications, biasing, frequency response, Noise, Multistage amplifiers, Feedback and its effect on gain, bandwidth, input and output impedance, noise and stability, Differential amplifiers.
Design of internal circuits of simple Operational amplifier, biasing, current mirror, current source, level shifting networks, BJT and FET input stage circuits.
Linear applications of OPAMP, inverting and noninverting amplifier, integrator/differentiator, Analogue computing, Instrumentation amplifier, Logarithmic amplifier, Multiplier, S/H circuits.
Transient response and switching speed, step response of single and multistage amplifiers, multi pole circuits, transient and slew considerations of OPAMP, Switching characteristics of diodes, transistors and transistor circuits.
Phase locked loops, phase detector, voltage controlled oscillator, effect of low pass filter on loop performance, PLL applications.
Laplace, Fourier, and Z-transforms, their properties and applications in electronics. Signal and system modeling , impulse response, energy and power spectral density, convolution and correlation, Digital filtering.
Numerical methods for solution of simultaneous equations, LU factorization, Pivotal condensation and Gauss -Jordan methods of matrix inversion, applications in network analysis.
Iterative algorithms, solving equations and finding roots, practical considerations of convergence rate and accuracy. Probability, curve fitting and error analysis.
Numerical methods for solution of differential, partial differential and integral equations, Euler's method, Runge-Kutta method, cubic spline method, numerical integration, differentiation and interpolation, Simpson's 1/3 rule, Gauss quadrature formula, Euler Maclaurine formula, Finite difference and finite element methods, applications in solution of Poisson's equation, drift-diffusion transport process, propagation of e.m. waves etc.
Electrostatics, electric field, emf, lines of force, potential, use of Coulomb's and Gauss's laws, method of images and boundary conditions in analysis of shielding, capacitance calculations, electron optics, dielectric breakdown, electrostatic Xerox, inkjet and laser printers.
Magnetostatics, theory of magnetism, magnetic forces and magnetic induction, boundary conditions on B and H, applications in analysis of RC, LC,LCR circuits, pn junction, electronic deflection system in CRT, Biot-Savart's Law, Ampere's law, vector potential.
Maxwell's equations, correspondence of field and circuit equations, wave equation, Poynting vector theorem, propagation, reflection and refraction of plane waves in free space, through media, lossless and lossy Transmission lines, standing wave and standing wave ratio, line impedance and admitance, impedance matching.
Waveguides, standing wave and standing wave ratio, characteristic impedance and admitance, impedance matching, use of Smith's chart, propagation modes, dielectric waveguides and optical fibers.
Short dipole antennas, antenna arrays, horn and helical antenna, field pattern and radiation resistance in various cases, radar equation, Antenna types and parameters for isotropic, dipole, broadside and end fire arrays, Yagi-Uda, log periodic and rhombic antenna, microwave antennas, horn, microstripline, slot antennas, parabolic reflector, Antenna design programs.
Logic families and their characteristics, TTL, ECL, NMOS, CMOS, basic TTL gate, open collector and totem pole outputs, wire ANDing, Three-state devices, Schmitt trigger, strobed gates, expandable gates.
Combinatorial logic circuits, encoders/decoders, multiplexer/ demultiplexers, code converters, Programmable Logic Arrays.
Sequential Ciruits, Flip-flops, counters, shift registers, ring counter and sequencer circuits, state diagrams, Finite state machines.
Arithmetic and Logic circuits, Comparison circuits, parity checking and generation, adder, subtraction, look ahead carry, binary multiplication and division, floating and fixed point arithmetic, ALU design.
Memories, Bipolar RAM, MOS memories, SRAM. DRAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM and EEPROMs.
Different types of D/A and A/D converters, circuits and specifications.
Digital system design applications and introduction to microprocessor and microcontroller.
Bipolar junction transistors, Ebers-Moll expressions, switching characteristics, transient and ac conditions, secondary effects, frequency limitations and microwave transistors.
Field Effect transistors, JFET, MOSFET, ideal MOS capacitor, control of threshold voltage, surface field effect transistors, Id-Vds characteristics, practical device effects.
Negative conductance, IMPATT and Gunn Microwave devices. Semiconductor heterojunction lasers, mechanism/ materials, masers, Power semiconductor devices, thyristor family, SCR, diac, triac, power transistors, power MOSFETs.
Optical memories, quantum well devices, Pockel Switch etc.
Device characterization techniques, measurement of electrical parameters of semiconductor materials, resistivity, mobility, carrier concentration, carrier type, Optical and electrooptical properties, Faraday rotation etc.
Revision of basics of reflection, refraction,transmission and absorption of light radiation, Ray-tracing through lenses, convex, concave and plane mirrors, prisms etc. Refractive index, total internal reflection.
LED, electroluminescence, carrier injection and recombination in pn junction diode, gas and solid state LASERs, pulse lasers. Photodetectors, photoconductive detectors, photoelectric cell, photomultiplier tube, photodiode, PIN photodiode, Avalanche photodiode, phototransistor, Optocouplers, Optointerruptors, LASCR.
Optical fiber theory and applications, parameters and types of optical fibers, single and multimode fibers, dispersion, step and graded index fibers, construction of optical fiber cables, loss mechanisms, connectors and splices, power budget of optical fiber link.
Display devices, indicators, numeric, alphanumeric and special function displays, LCD, viewability, response time, contrast ratio. Industrial applications of optoelectronics., optointerrupter, shaft encoder, remote control.
Optical computing and holography.
Superheterodyne radio receiver, Video signal transmission, and reception, television receiver, monochrome and colour.
Telephone communication, manual and automatic switching networks, Strowger, Crossbar and Stored program switching, speech digitization and transmission, traffic engineering , numbering plan, facsimile, radio paging and other telecommunication services, cellular mobile and satellite communication, Optical fiber communication systems, digital communication principles, FDM, TDM and WDM systems.
Information theory, Shanon’s definition of information, entropy, capacity of a channel, Shanon’s theorem.
Sampling and digitization of analog signals, transmission coding, code compression, error detection and correction codes, data security, encryption/decryption algorithms.
Data communication, DTE, DCE, MODEMs, FSK, PSK, DPSK, PCM, Delta modulation, Compading, CODECs.
Computer networking and internet, OSI model, Network topologies, network architectures and protocols, ISDN.
Instruction formats, addressing modes, instruction sets, assembly language programming, use of assemblers, macros, program looping, subroutine linkage, reentrancy and recursion.
Operating system fundamentals, multi user multi tasking OS, DOS, Windows and Unix.
Interfacing Memory and I/O devices, address space partitioning, Memory management, Virtual memory, Common peripherals and their interfacing.
I/O devices for process control and instrumentation, transducers, signal conditioning circuits, instrumentation amplifier, programmable gain amplifier, S/H, analog multiplexers, data acquisition systems, timers and counters, PC addon cards.
Data transfer schemes, programmed data transfer, synchronous and asynchronous transfer, interrupts, enabling, disabling, masking, prioritizing interrupts, Direct Memory Access (DMA) data transfer, Serial data transfer, GPIB and RS-232C protocols.
Development and troubleshooting tools, single board microcomputer kits, simulators, In Circuit Emulators , Logic analyzer.
Design of Embedded systems, microcontoller based system design, application examples, temperature monitoring and control system, DC motor speed controller, ECG data acquisition and monitoring system, electrical characterization systems for semiconductor parameter analysis.
Epitaxial growth, VPE, LPE and MBE, mechanism, apparatus and methods of evaluation of EPI-layers.
Diffusion, theory of diffusion, mechanism and physical phenomena, diffusion models for constant source and limited source cases, effect of temperature, electric field, substrate material, orientation, defects and type of impurity species.
Oxidation, Deal Grove model of thermal oxidation, dry, wet, rapid thermal, pyrogenic and steam oxidation, chlorine enhanced oxidation, dependence on process and substrate parameters, quality of oxide, oxidation induced staking faults, anodic and plasma oxidation.
Ion implantation, ion implantation system and principles, implant model, penetration range, backscattering, staggling, channeling, Annealing and sintering. Deposition techniques, CVD and PVD, Laser ablation, Laser annealing and mixing.
Lithography, phtolithography, EBMF and X-ray lithography, Wet chemical etching, lift off process and plasma etching.
Clean rooms, class of clean rooms, filter, air curtains, air showers, particle counters, De-ionized water, DI plant, purity of gases and materials, Quartzware, furnaces, gas bubblers and other apparatus in fab labs, components of fab systems including valves, flowmeters, gas links, vacuum links, sealing, gas leakage detection systems, laboratory hazards and their prevention.
Bonding and packaging processes.
Electrical, physical and chemical characterization techniques.
I-V, C-V, device performance, stress, strain, thickness, hardness testing etc., XPS, IR, UV-VIS spectroscopy, SEM.
Time management and resource planning.
Presentation and Appreciation.
NMOS, CMOS technologies, isolation techniques, self alignment, local oxidation, planarization, metallization, diffused, ion implanted and thin film resistors.
Design of NMOS inverter, stick diagrams, colour and monochrome codes in stick diagrams and mask layouts, pull up to pull down ratio, correspondence of design parameters with specifications, mask layout designs for NMOS/CMOS NAND, NOR gates.
The cost -volume trade-off, role of design center and foundry, design methodologies, custom and semicustom designs, standard cell, gate array, FPGA, CPLD and PLDs
Hierarchical design of VLSIs, interception levels, behavioral description, RTL, Logic circuit, gate, circuits, device, process, Circuit topology to patterning geometry to wafer fabrication, basics of silicon compiler.
CAD VLSI tools, simulators for logic, timing, circuit, device and process optimization, Xilinx, Spice, Minmos, Suprem simulation tools, Layout design, assignment, partitioning, placement, global and channel routing, compaction and verification algorithms and tools, Layout design verifiers, mask pattern generators.
Hardware description languages for VLSI design, VHDL and Verilog, programming and subsystem design concepts, design of multiplexer, parity generator leaf cell, adder, subtractor, multiplier, ALU, datapaths and FSMs, design for testability, processor design.
Control loop characteristics, process equation, process, lead, lag, self regulation, control system parameters, error, variable range, control parameter range, control lag, dead time, cycling, controller modes, ON-OFF control, proportional mode, integral and differential actions, P, PI, PID modes, open/ closed loop tuning of PID, Ziegler-Nicholas method.
Mathematical models of systems, state variable models, analysis of state variable models of open and closed loop systems, stability criterion, Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion, root locus and frequency response methods of control system analysis.
Programmable logic controllers,, process event and space sequence description, ladder diagram, programming a plc, use of microcontrollers, fuzzy logic. Process control systems and automation, case studies of boiler, chiller, clean room, furnace, heat exchanger, pump, steam turbine, bottling plant and tea/coffee vending machine control.
CAD/CAM, Introduction to standard CAD/CAM softwares, computer integrated manufacturing, NC, CNC and computer controlled robots.
Mechanical, thermal, optical, electrical, magnetic, chemical sensors, displacement, strain, vibration, pressure, flow, force and torque, temperature transducers.
Actuators, electromechanical, electrothermal, electro-optical and electrochemical actuators, working principles, specifications and application examples, relays, motors, heaters.
Electronic components, specifications of commercially available components, modern package like SMDs, application circuits of sensors with electronic components, Signal conditioning circuits.